Periodontal Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
diabetes periodontal-disease vitamin-d
Periodontitis is strongly associated with diabetes and is increasingly shown to be associated with other glycemic abnormalities. Vitamin D is postulated to have both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the joint effects of both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D with periodontitis on homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.